The human body is regulated by multiple mechanisms. One of the most common mechanisms that regulates metabolic functions in the body is the principle of negative feedback. To explain how this process works we will use insulin as an example.
Insulin release is triggered by rising levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood stream. Insulin increases uptake of glucose into the cells. Some of the glucose is used while the rest is stored for later use in the form of glycogen. As insulin takes effect the levels of glucose circulating begin the decrease. This decrease in glucose levels is detected by the pancreas and as a result the pancreas decreases the amount or stops the amount of insulin released.
What happens when there is already enough glucose in the cell? What happens when the glycogen stores are completely full? The answer is Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.
This is equivalent to the gas tank in your vehicle being full; after all everything has a capacity and once that capacity is met signs begin to be readily apparent.
When the body has no more room for glucose or glycogen in the intracellular space we start see the glucose level in the blood rise. Previously this was thought to be due to insulin resistance as the cause of type 2 diabetes; but insulin resistance is just the result of excess glucose and glycogen at the intracellular level. As the intracellular glucose levels near capacity as well as the glycogen the body attempts to downregulate the transport of glucose across the cellular membrane. By performing this downregulation, we begin to see the early effects of insulin resistant. The cells are becoming insulin resistant as a protective mechanism. This in turn causes excess levels of glucose in the bloodstream of which the body attempts to eliminate via the kidneys with increase secretion of glucose in the urine. This is the natural defense mechanism of the body to attempt to regulate total body glucose metabolism.
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