Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are completely different diseases.
Type 1 diabetes accounts for around 5-10% of the cases of diabetes. It mostly affects patients at younger age. It is caused by lack of insulin. The beta islet cells of the pancreas are damaged by autoantibodies and thus insulin secretion is affected. Patients are usually young and underweight. It is a fatal disease if not treated and lifelong insulin injections are currently needed.
Type 2 diabetes is a completely different disease even though both types of diabetes share the common feature of elevated blood sugar level. In type 2 diabetes, the body cells become resistant to the effect of insulin. In type 1 diabetes, the cells are not getting enough glucose as there is not enough insulin. When we give these patients insulin, glucose is able to get into the cells to be used as a source of energy.
In type 2 diabetes, the cells have excessive amount of glucose, more than what they need to use. As a part of the negative feedback mechanism that the body uses to keep the internal environment constant, the cells try to stop the influx of the excessive glucose into it by becoming less sensitive to insulin which is the main driving force of glucose into the cells. The insulin resistance in other words is a protective mechanism. It is the way the cells control the amount of glucose that enters into the cell.
When the cells become resistant to insulin, less glucose is able to enter the into the cells from the blood stream which leads to elevated blood glucose level. This in turn send signals to the pancreas to secrete more insulin in an attempt to control the elevated blood sugar level by trying to overcome the insulin resistance with higher level of insulin.
The high level of insulin has many adverse side effects. Insulin causes increased fat storage in a process called lipogenesis by activating the lipoprotein lipase enzyme in the fat cells which takes the free fatty acid from the blood into the fat cell to make a molecule of triglyceride which leads to increased fat storage and obesity.
High levels of insulin also causes increased salt and water retention by the effect of the insulin on the proximal tubule of the kidney which leads to high blood pressure. High level of insulin also leads to an abnormal cholesterol profile. As the above mentions; side effects of high insulin level collectively are referred to as the Metabolic Syndrome.
The current treatment of type 2 diabetes focuses only on lowering the blood sugar level which is not the main problem in the disease. The main problem is the insulin resistance and elevated insulin level.
When treating type 2 diabetes with insulin injections, we actually make the problem of high insulin level and insulin resistance much worse and the patient often gains more weight, continues to have high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Moreover, his/her insulin resistance eventually gets worse requiring higher doses of insulin which gets the patient into a never-ending cycle of more insulin resistance, more insulin side effects, and more complications.
Most of the complications of type 2 diabetes does not really happen from the elevated blood sugar level but is a result of the insulin resistance and high insulin levels. By trying to control the blood sugar with insulin injection of by giving oral medications that increase the insulin production, we actually do not prevent most of the diabetes complications from happening.
This is the reason that most of the patients suffering from type 2 diabetes still suffer from the complications such as heart attack, stroke, coronary artery disease, etc. even when their blood sugar levels are fairly controlled with insulin injection or oral medications.
The Diabetes Reversal Program offered by The Metabolism Clinic is sets the new standard in the treatment of type 2 diabetes which is the insulin resistance. In this program, the causes of the disease process are treated to reverse the disease process.
The Metabolism Clinic is established as the destination for weight loss and reversal of diabetes. Based in Charlotte, North Carolina. www.themetabolismclinic.com